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Section 7

Defining and Measuring Outcomes

As we have seen in Section 2, the concept of employability is a complex and multi-faceted one. This is in part because, as the OECD (2015: 22) has argued:

" most employability skills are general in nature and relevant for all kinds of occupations,

[and] considered necessary to provide a foundation for effective and successful participation

in the social and economic life of advanced economies. "

Consequently, this requires programmes to define and measure a variety of outcomes. In this section we provide a range of tools to measure aspects of employability and they are arranged in a broadly developmental order, reflecting the theory of change outlined in Section 5. 

Because aspects of employability are closely related to personal development some outcomes are fairly generic (e.g., perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, resilience).

In each case we outline:

  • The relevance of the measures.

  • How they might be developed via programme activities and processes. It is important to assess if your programme is designed to achieve such outcomes. If it is not designed to do so, then the particular measures should not be used.  

  • How they can be measured and the meaning of the measurements. 


Although we have tried to identify the processes via which many of these outcomes can be achieved, many depend not simply on particular activities, but on the general supportive social climate and positive social relationships which should characterise sport-for-employability programmes. (see Section 3) 

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